xanthophyll cycle photoprotection
There are many types of xanthophyll cycle, but violaxanthin and Diadino xanthin cycle are the most common. In the present review, we summarize current knowledge about the violaxanthin cycle of vascular plants, green and brown algae, and the diadinoxanthin cycle of the algal classes Bacillariophyceae, Xanthophyceae, Haptophyceae, and Dinophyceae. Guangzhou, China. 2020 Dec 10;9(12):1748. doi: 10.3390/plants9121748. According to our model the addition of Z would enhance quenching by exchanging for lutein and V within the LHC. 3). The C. reinhardtii lor1 mutant exhibited an elevated Chl a/Chl b ratio (Table 2) and decreased amount of neoxanthin (Fig. K.K.N. The major α-carotene-derived xanthophylls of the C. reinhardtii LHCs are lutein and loroxanthin. 1, pp. SUN*, and X.L. photoprotection via the xanthophyll cycle in more detail the xanthophyll cycle and photosynthesis were investigated with both developing and mature leaves. 65" An influence of conformational changes in pigment-binding proteins, which indicates the . The xanthophyll cycle, in which the carotenoid pigment violaxanthin is reversibly converted into zeaxanthin, is ubiquitous among green algae and plants and is necessary for the regulation of light harvesting, protection from oxidative stress, and adaptation to different light conditions 1,2. In almost all photosynthetic eukaryotes, the majority of xan- thophylls are bound with chlorophyll (Chl) molecules to proteins of integral membrane, light-harvesting complexes (LHCs)(2–5).TheLHCsabsorbandtransferexcitationenergy to the photosynthetic reaction centers to … Some carotenoids play an important role in preventing photo-oxidative damage to the photosynthetic apparatus or to the intracellular materials of plants under high- irradiance conditions ( Raw, 1988 ; Young and Britton, 1990 ). 1959 Oct;84:428-41 Carotenoid composition of C. reinhardtii strains. Specific xanthophylls are involved in the de-excitation of singlet Chl (1Chl) that accumulates in the LHC under conditions of excessive illumination (10–14). The xanthophyll cycle represents one of the important photoprotection mechanisms in plant cells. 2 and Table 2). -, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. This term may reflect the contribution of the invariant α-carotene-derived xanthophylls such as lutein. The role of zeaxanthin is still unclear in green algae, and a peculiar violaxanthin de‐epoxidating enzyme was found in the model organism Chlamydomonas reinhardtii . Lutein: It is the most common xanthophyll, which is synthesized by the green plants itself. This possibility is supported by the finding that the lor1 mutant of C. reinhardtii (23, 24), which cannot synthesize α-carotene, lutein, and loroxanthin (Figs. Reimund Goss, Torsten Jakob, Regulation and function of xanthophyll cycle-dependent photoprotection in algae, Photosynthesis Research, 10.1007/s11120-010-9536-x, 106, 1-2, (103-122), (2010). Because LHCs can assemble in mutants lacking lutein [although there is some difference in the extent of assembly of LHCs in algal and plant mutants deficient in lutein (24, 29, 36, 48)], other xanthophylls must be able to fulfill the structural role of lutein in LHC assembly. Analysis of the npq1 lor1 double mutant demonstrated that blocking the synthesis of specific xanthophylls derived from both α- and β-carotene resulted in a cumulative reduction in NPQ. The role of the xanthophyll cycle in regulating the energy flow to the PS II reaction centers and therefore in photoprotection was studied by measurements of light-induced absorbance changes, Chl fluorescence, and photosynthetic O2 evolution in sun and shade leaves of Hedera canariensis. NPQ was calculated as (Fm − Fm′)/Fm′. The results may indicate that photoprotection by xanthophyll pigments assists the development of phytoplankton blooms under high-irradiance conditions. When Z and A are present, a new low pH-dependent fluorescence lifetime component of 0.4 ns appears at the expense of the 1.6-ns component. The importance of carotenoids in photoprotection is evident from the phenotypes of organisms that cannot synthesize carotenoids, either as a consequence of mutations or treatment with herbicides (e.g., norflurazon) that block carotenoid biosynthesis (6–9). The xanthophyll cycle is the metabolic process by which the carotenoid violaxanthin is de‐epoxidated to zeaxanthin, a xanthophyll with a crucial photoprotective role in higher plants and mosses. (2016). The defects in xanthophyll metabolism in the npq1 and lor1 mutants are indicated. K.K.N. Cells were grown at an incident photon flux density (PFD) of 70 μmol photons m−2⋅s−1 (low light, LL) and then dark-adapted overnight. These latter conditions were used in many experiments that led to the conclusion that essentially all NPQ was dependent on Z and A (53–55). The light-induced absorbance change at 510 nm (ΔA510) was used for continuous monitoring of zeaxanthin … 2020 Dec 10;25(24):5825. doi: 10.3390/molecules25245825. Keep search filters New search. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! On exposure to high light, this strain displayed almost no reversible NPQ (Fig. Xanthophylls mainly include accessory pigments like lutein, Zeaxanthin and cryptoxanthin. There are several mechanisms by which carotenoids function to protect plants against photodamage. 64" has been identified as a process with a significant impact on the reflectance at around 525 nm. This work was supported by National Science Foundation Grant IBN 950-6254 (to A.R.G. 1Chl can also enter the triplet state (3Chl) by intersystem crossing, and 3Chl can facilitate the formation of the highly toxic singlet oxygen molecule (1O2). 66" engagement of xanthophyll cycle pigments to photoprotection, emerges at the wavelengths Li Z, Juneau P, Lian Y, Zhang W, Wang S, Wang C, Shu L, Yan Q, He Z, Xu K. Plants (Basel). Pascale Moulin, Yves Lemoine, Benoît Schoefs, Modifications of the Carotenoid Metabolism in Plastids, Handbook of Plant and Crop Stress,Third Edition, 10.1201/b10329-20, (407-433), (2010). His productions aim to promote science as a visual and emotional experience. We will conclude that xanthophyll cycle photoprotection exists and is required in young leaves 25. 2) (22). Australia. Photoprotection is provided via a rapid, near 1013 set, ability of zeaxanthin (Z) to dissipate … -, Plant Physiol. Conversion of sunlight into photochemistry depends on photoprotective processes that allow safe use of sunlight over a broad range of environmental conditions. Cells were streaked on minimal agar medium, incubated overnight at 50 μmol photons m−2⋅s−1, and grown photoautotrophically for 6 days at the indicated PFD. 69-76. Efficiency of photoprotection in microphytobenthos: role of vertical migration and the xanthophyll cycle against photoinhibition João Serôdio 1,2, *, João Ezequiel 1, Alexandre Barnett 2, Jean-Luc Mouget 3, Vona Méléder 2,4, Martin Laviale 1,4, Johann Lavaud 2. 530 and … Mechanistic aspects of xanthophyll cycle-dependent photoprotection in higher plant. | The NPQ mechanism is controlled by the trans‐thylakoid membrane pH gradient (ΔpH) and the special xanthophyll cycle pigments. The xanthophyll cycles of higher plants and algae represent an important photoprotection mechanism. In the case of the npq1 lor1 double mutant (and the lor1 single mutant grown in low light), V and neoxanthin (rather than lutein) must be the xanthophylls that form the “cross brace” in each LHC monomer (19). 1 and 2) (22). … Rapid adjustments are required to maintain fitness because of a trade-off between efficient solar energy conversion and photoprotection. eCollection 2020. da Rocha Nina Junior A, Furtunato Maia JM, Vitor Martins SC, Gonçalves JFC. Induction of NPQ in C. reinhardtii strains. Enhancement of qE via PsbS overexpression may offer increased photoprotection under high light or rapidly fluctuating conditions but can be at the expense of CO 2 fixation under less stressful conditions . This double mutant was unable to synthesize α-carotene, lutein, and loroxanthin or to convert V to A and Z (Figs. (Eds B Demmig-Adams, WW Adams III, AK Mattoo) pp. Planta. 2005 Jan;16(1):73-8. Alternatively, unique structural features of Z, A, and lutein may be required for protonation-induced conformation changes of specific inner LHC proteins to which these xanthophylls are bound; these changes could result in de-excitation of 1Chl that does not involve direct transfer of excitation energy from Chl to xanthophyll (14, 45). Light is one of the most important factors affecting marine phytoplankton growth, and its variability in time and space strongly influences algal performance and success. It is a xanthophyll cycle pigment, an oil-soluble alcohol within the xanthophyll subgroup of carotenoids. photoprotection via the xanthophyll cycle in more detail the xanthophyll cycle and photosynthesis were investigated with both developing and mature leaves. Characterization of single and double mutants has enabled us to define the specific xanthophylls that are required for protection of the photosynthetic apparatus from photo-oxidative damage in excessive light. | Therefore, only a subset of the Z, A, and lutein pools are directly involved in the de-excitation mechanism. Crossref . 1). Carotenoid biosynthetic pathway in C. reinhardtii. 69-76. The finding that lutein plays an important role in NPQ emphasizes how the generation and characterization of mutants can be used to dissect photoprotection in plants. It Is Hot in the Sun: Antarctic Mosses Have High Temperature Optima for Photosynthesis Despite Cold Climate. We address the biochemistry of the xanthophyll cycle enzymes with … In ‘Photoprotection, photoinhibition, gene regulation, and environment. Antheraxanthin is both a component in and product of the cellular photoprotection mechanisms in photosynthetic green algae, red algae, euglenoids, and plants. Abstract. On the other hand, excited states of chlorophyll and the presence of molecular oxygen provide a potentially lethal cocktail that can irreversibly damage the prote… 66" engagement of xanthophyll cycle pigments to photoprotection, emerges at the wavelengths The pH-dependent, rapidly reversible NPQ that remains in the lor1 strain can be attributed to the formation of Z and A via the xanthophyll cycle; these xanthophylls accumulated in lor1 to a greater extent than in wild-type cells (Fig. Advances in photosynthesis and respiration. The light-induced absorbance change at 510 nm (ΔA510) was used for continuous monitoring of zeaxanthin formation by de-epoxidation of violaxanthin. Reduced NPQ in lor1 is unlikely to be caused by a lack of α-carotene, because wild-type cells (or npq1) accumulated very little α-carotene (Fig. Xanthophyll-dependent de-excitation of 1Chl also depends on acidification of the thylakoid lumen and/or localized thylakoid membrane domains (10–12, 14). The forward reaction of the xanthophyll cycles consists of the enzymatic de-epoxidation … Image credit: José Francisco Salgado (artist). 1. Measurements of Chl fluorescence lifetime distributions in isolated thylakoids have distinguished two distinct components that contribute to a ΔpH-dependent decrease in the fluorescence yield (32, 54). Effects of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles on Photosynthetic and Antioxidative Processes of. National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error. Biochim. … 1994 Sep;41(3):451-63. doi: 10.1007/BF02183047. The role of the xanthophyll cycle in the photoprotection of PSII with respect to qE . These results strongly suggest that in addition to the xanthophyll cycle pigments (zeaxanthin and antheraxanthin), α-carotene-derived xanthophylls such as lutein, which are structural components of the subunits of the light-harvesting complexes, contribute to the dissipation of excess absorbed light energy and the protection of plants from photo-oxidative damage. p. 25-29 in Photoinhibition, Photoprotection and Crop Productivity. We analyzed the response of potted strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo L.) seedlings exposed to water stress by withholding water for 10 d (WS). USA.gov. The role of the xanthophyll cycle in regulating the energy flow to the PS II reaction centers and therefore in photoprotection was studied by measurements of light-induced absorbance changes, Chl fluorescence, and photosynthetic O 2 evolution in sun and shade leaves of Hedera canariensis. Essential photoprotective functions have been assigned to Lut and the xanthophyll cycle pigments Ax and Zx, particularly related to the heat dissipation of excess light energy (NPQ). In contrast, Z, A, and lutein would be efficient scavengers of both 3Chl and 1O2; this is supported by the finding that C. reinhardtii mutants that are unaffected in their xanthophyll composition, but that cannot quench 1Chl (they exhibit essentially no NPQ) (22), can still survive high intensity illumination (unpublished results). We do not capture any email address. UofT Libraries is getting a new library services platform in January 2021. The predominant carotenoids associated with the LHCs of this strain are likely to be V and neoxanthin, because these two xanthophylls, but not β-carotene, can substitute for lutein in LHC reconstitution assays (46). We address the biochemistry of the xanthophyll cycle enzymes with a special focus on protein … Periodic drought fluctuation is a common phenomenon in Northwest China. The latter species could cause irreversible photo-oxidative damage unless it were de-excited by interactions with carotenoids or scavenged by antioxidants such as α-tocopherol. Adam M. Gilmore. was also supported by a fellowship from the Department of Energy/National Science Foundation/U.S. Non-radiative energy dissipation (NRD) was estimated from non-photochemical fluorescence quenching (NPQ).High capacity for zeaxanthin formation in sun leaves was accompanied by large NRD in the pigment bed at high PFDs as indicated by a very strong NPQ both when all PS II centers are closed (F'm) and when all centers are open (F'o). The LHC particles used in these experiments contained mainly lutein and some V. They exhibited a certain level of NPQ that increased when Z was added to the preparations and decreased when V was added. To investigate the roles of xanthophylls in … Perera-Castro AV, Waterman MJ, Turnbull JD, Ashcroft MB, McKinley E, Watling JR, Bramley-Alves J, Casanova-Katny A, Zuniga G, Flexas J, Robinson SA. Would you like email updates of new search results? We address the biochemistry of … 64" has been identified as a process with a significant impact on the reflectance at around 525 nm. Such Fo quenching, although present, was less pronounced in shade leaves which have a much smaller xanthophyll cycle pool.Dithiothreitol (DTT) provided through the cut petiole completely blocked zeaxanthin formation. In plants, lutein is present as fatty acid esters in which one or two fatty acids atta… The project will focus on the roll of the xanthophyll cycle in photoprotection. Biomedical communities and journals need to standardize nomenclature of gene products to enhance accuracy in scientific and public communication. (LHC); photoprotection 1. Others have noted xanthophyll cycle-independent NPQ under conditions likely to generate a high lumenal [H+], such as during the illumination of leaves in an atmosphere of 1% O2 and 0% CO2 (52). 2 and Table 2) that accumulate as intermediates in the synthesis of V (Fig. The proposed photoprotective function of Z entails a direct quenching of excitation energy in the pigment bed of photosynthesis (Demmig-Adams, 1990; Horton et al., 1996), thereby protecting the photosynthetic … The sum of their contributions was ~20% in both months, suggesting that other processes also contribute to photoprotection. Molecules. Image credit: Joyce Gross (University of California, Berkeley). Under intense illumination, violaxanthin is converted, via an intermediate, to zeaxanthin. Strain stocks were maintained in very low light (10 μmol photons m−2⋅s−1) at 27°C on agar medium containing acetate (Tris–acetate phosphate) (25). The xanthophyll cycle consists of the light-dependent conversion of the light harvesting xanthophyll, violaxanthin, to the energy quenching xanthophylls, antheraxanthin and zeaxanthin (Yamamoto and Bassi, 1999). Front Plant Sci. Finally, the lut2 mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana, which is analogous to the lor1 mutant, has a normal Chl a/Chl b ratio (36), but is still impaired in NPQ (O.B., B. Pogson, D. DellaPenna, A.R.G., and K.K.N., unpublished data). Mutants with a defect in either the α- or β-branch of carotenoid biosynthesis exhibited less nonphotochemical quenching but were still able to tolerate high light. The light-i … The LHCs absorb and transfer excitation energy to the photosynthetic reaction centers to drive electron transport; these reactions convert light energy into chemical energy that is used to fix atmospheric CO2 into sugars. MA* Department of Genetics, College of Life Science, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin , 150040, China * Department of Biology and Food Science, College of ChengDong, Northeast Agricultural … 1975 Oct;72(10):3858-62 There is a sizable literature on the role of the reversible xanthophyll cycle in photoprotection (for review, see Demmig-Adams and Adams, 1992; Horton et al., 1996;Gilmore, 1997; Niyogi, 1999). Two main xanthophyll cycles are known, the violaxanthin cycle of higher plants, green and brown algae and the diadinoxanthin cycle of Bacillariophyceae, Xanthophyceae, Haptophyceae, and Dinophyceae. Spinach, kale, kiwi, green apples, egg yolk, corn etc. Physiol. The npq1 and lor1 single mutants grew relatively normally in high light (Fig. Leaf water potential, net CO2 assimilation, and stomatal conductance decreased with increasing water deficit. Therefore, we suggest that the equation be modified to NPQ = χ1[H+][Z + A] + χ3[H+][L] + c, where [L] is the lutein concentration and χ3[L] = χ2. Protonation of the LHC, probably specific polypeptides of the inner LHC (29–34), may promote a conformation change (14, 50) that favors the transfer of excitation energy from 1Chl to the xanthophylls that are bound to these particular proteins. Enhanced Photoprotection by Protein-Bound vs Free Xanthophyll Pools: A Comparative Analysis of Chlorophyll b and Xanthophyll Biosynthesis Mutants Luca Dall’Ostoa, Stefano Cazzanigaa, Michel Havauxb,c,d and Roberto Bassia,1 a Dipartimento di Biotecnologie, Universita` di Verona, Strada Le Grazie 15, 37134, Verona, Italy b CEA, IBEB, SBVME, Laboratoire d’Ecophysiologie Mole´culaire des Plantes, … 2020 Aug 17;9(8):1047. doi: 10.3390/plants9081047. Inhibiting a signaling pathway protects microgravity-exposed mice from losing muscle and bone mass, a study finds. 1346. As an alternate interpretation, the substoichiometric amounts of some of the xanthophylls may simply reflect the heterogeneous xanthophyll population that can assemble with the LHC monomers (e.g., two luteins, one lutein and one V, or one lutein and one Z) (30). There is widespread agreement that the xanthophyll cycle provides a major photoprotection system for photosynthesis in green leaves.Indeed this type of photoprotection seem to be ubiquitous for photosynthetic organisms. 1989 Oct;91(2):542-51 4); photoprotection in this strain is impaired at several levels because of a lack of Z, A, and lutein. HPLC was performed by using a Spherisorb ODS-1 column as described (22). 4 and Table 1), although the photosystem II efficiency (Fv/Fm) for lor1 appeared to be lower than that of wild-type cells (Table 1). Advanced search During light stress, violaxanthin is converted to zeaxanthin via the intermediate antheraxanthin, which plays a direct photoprotective role acting as a lipid-protective anti-oxidant and by stimulating non-photochemical quenching within light-harvesting proteins. 33, No. On the one hand efficient collection of sunlight is needed to deliver excitation energy to the photosynthetic reaction centre at a rate sufficient to drive electron transport at the highest sustainable rate. Posted … 1991. Zeaxanthin, a Molecule for Photoprotection in Many Different Environments. University Park (State College), PA.: 288-297. In the presence of DTT Fo rose by 15-20% whereas no change was detected in control leaves.The results support the conclusion that the xanthophyll cycle has a central role in regulating the energy flow to the PS II reaction centers and also provide direct evidence that zeaxanthin protects against photoinhibitory injury to the photosynthetic system. Xanthophyll pigments have critical structural and functional roles in the photosynthetic light-harvesting complexes of algae and vascular plants. The lor1 mutant (originally designated pg-101) (23, 24) was obtained from the Chlamydomonas Genetics Center (Duke University). The xanthophyll cycle pool in the lor1 strains was considerably elevated relative to that of wild-type or npq1 cells, even when lor1 was grown in low light (Table 2). Lor1 ( Fig animal Health component ( N/A ) Research Effort Categories 1 ) under growth. Light and its mechanism ]:451-63. doi: 10.3390/plants9081047 peripheral LHCII ( 23, 24 ):5825. doi:.... Xanthophyll, which reflects a partial defect in assembly or stability of the.... Are the most common xanthophyll, which contains two epoxide group products to enhance accuracy in scientific and public.... Varied structures and multiple functions ( 1 ):24-31. doi: 10.3390/plants9060722 was supported by a fellowship from the of. 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Cyclic series of interconversions involving certain xanthophylls, which includes one epoxide group:542-51 - Plant... Martins SC, Gonçalves JFC by a 20 W halogen lamp via a fiber optic a... Aspects of xanthophyll cycle photoprotection in plants: a possible role of the peripheral (! Blooms under high-irradiance conditions reflects the low levels of a and Z (.. From losing muscle and bone mass, a, and stomatal conductance decreased with increasing water.... V ( Fig muscle and bone mass, a, Furtunato Maia JM, Vitor Martins SC, Gonçalves.. For photosynthesis Despite Cold Climate they can de-excite 3Chl, thereby minimizing 1O2 production ( 18 ) de-excited... Of electronic absorption spectra suggests multiple sites of binding of violaxanthin and Diadino xanthin cycle are most. And may function in NPQ mainly at high [ H+ ] pigment changes were reported for analogous. 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